Day 1 :
Department of petroleum technology and alternative fuels, University of chemistry and technology Prague, Czech Republic
Veronika Váchová is a PhD student at UCT Prague. She is engaged in the hydrotreating of vegetable oils to motor fuels, especially in terms of testing new catalysts and the influence of process conditions on the quality of the products. She has participated in several international conferences, such as International Conference on Chemical Technology in Mikulov, Czech Republic.
Statement of the Problem: The hydrotreating of vegetable oils is nowadays a very promising way to produce renewable components of engine fuels. Using reduced nickel-based catalysts for this purpose seems to be very perspective. However, these catalysts are characterized by relatively low stability during the deoxygenation of triglycerides, mainly due to the deposition of coke on their surface. For this reason, bimetallic nickel-based catalysts with Ag and Cu promoters were tested and their activities and stabilities were compared.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: The hydrotreating was performed in a tubular fixed-bed reactor with the co-current flow of a feedstock and hydrogen. Commercially available rapeseed oil was used as a feedstock and Ni, Ni-Ag and Ni-Cu catalysts with γ-Al2O3 support were prepared and tested. Temperatures in the range of 220 – 320 °C, the pressure of 4 MPa, weight hourly space velocity of 1 h-1 and hydrogen to feedstock ratio of 1000 m3·m-3 were used.
Findings: For all tested catalysts, the conversion of triglycerides increased with the increasing reaction temperature and the full conversion was achieved for Ni and Ni-Ag catalysts at the reaction temperature of 260 °C and at 280 °C for the Ni-Cu catalyst. The key component of all gaseous products was methane, probably due to the strong hydrogenolysis activity of all compared catalysts.
Conclusion & Significance: If Ni-Cu/γ-Al2O3 catalyst was used, hydrogenolysis reactions were slightly suppressed and the higher stability at the higher reaction temperatures was observed. For this reason, Ni-Cu/γ-Al2O3 seems to be a perspective catalyst for the hydrotreating of vegetable oils with the aim of the production of renewable components of engine fuels.
Aalborg University, Pontoppidanstræde 111, Aalborg, 9220, Denmark
Ayaz Ali Shah has been working as a researcher in the Advanced Biofuels group at the Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Denmark. Ayaz Ali Shah has completed his Master of Engineering from the Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro, Pakistan, which is one of most leading research institutes in Pakistan. Ayaz Ali Shah has published a several high impact factor journal papers and many conference articles. His research area is focused on the optimization of the aqueous phase in HTL processing.
Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a promising technology for converting wet biomass like swine manure (SM) and sewage sludge (SS) into high energy bio-crude. Until now, one of the major problems associated with HTL is the pumpability of the feedstocks for continuous processing. In this context, this study presents a novel approach for the pumpability of the feedstocks SM:SS in ratios (1:0, 0:1, 1:1, 3:2, and 4:1) with 25% dry matter content. Obtained results showed that SM was not pumpable itself due to its fibrous nature, but became pumpable with the addition of SS. It was highlighted that almost 80% of the SM was smoothly able to pump with 20% SS.
After that HTL experiments were carried out of the samples SM:SS ((1:0, 0:1, 1:1, and 4:1) at 350 °C. The highest bio-crude yield with a synergistic effect was obtained at ratio 1:1 with a maximum HHV of 36 MJ/Kg. Almost 65% mass of all bio-crudes was formed from volatile components in the range of 350 °C. Aqueous phase analysis showed that SS samples contained a high nitrogen 17 g/l while SM carried a high amount of dissolved carbon 39 g/l. ICP-AES results revealed the majority of the inorganic elements were concentrated into the solid phase, while 10 to 20% potassium and sodium were transferred to the aqueous phase.
In conclusion, SM can be pumped by using SS as co-substrate to enhance the pumpability and improving the efficiency of the HTL system for continuous processing.
Vellore Institute of Technology, Tamil Nadu 390018, INDIA
KrunalPardasani is currently a graduate student pursing Bachlors in Mechanical Engineering with specialization in Automotive Engineering . He has published 1 research paper till date and have received an International recognization for the same by IJRULA Foundation as “Best researcher Award “ in the year 2018 and have also received “ GD Naidu Young scientist Award” from Vellore Institute of Technology. He has also won technical compitions like Tata Mindrover Challenge 2019 and Techgium 2019 organised by LNTTS.He is always dedicated towards research field in Automotive Sector.
Production of quality biodiesel and evaluation of performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine using different biodiesel blends: Diesel engine has an excellent reputation for its low setup cost, high-energy efficiency, high stability, and its extreme flexibility for a variety of operating conditions. The energy demands from depleting non-renewable reserves of fossil fuels are increasing nowadays, due to a wide range of applications. The fossil fuels, with the current consumption rates, are getting exhausted in the near future. Hence, there is an increasing interest to transition towards alternative renewable, sustainable, and environmental-friendly fuels. Biofuels are one of the alternative sources of energy with great potential to provide energy, economy and environment security. Biodiesel, compared to the other biofuels, has gained increasing attention worldwide as blending components or direct promising substitution in CI engines. Since current emission standards are focusing more on reducing NOₓ than other emissions , then the NOₓ emissions of CI engines fuelled with different biodiesel blends are considered in this review. In this study we studied the extraction of oil, seed parameters along with the evaluation of the parameters which are then predicted using Artificial Neural Network using the NN tool by utilising appropriate algorithms on MATLAB®️ 2015, the predicted values of Specific fuel consumption(sfc), Brake thermal Efficiency which are the performance characteristics, CO, HC,NOₓ the pollutants measure which are predicted across loads. In the present study, the effect of various blending ratios of Jatropha and Castor Oil will be studied. For the ANN modelling standard back propagation algorithm was found to be the optimum choice for training the model .The study will also involve the prediction of certain parameters using the Artificial Neural Network technique.
University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Southern Switzerland (SUPSI), Switzerland
Maurizio Cuomo is currently doing PhD in University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Southern Switzerland.
Statement of the problem To overcome the reduced metabolic efficiency of anaerobic pathways, the microorganisms involved in Anaerobic Digestion (AD) cooperate in a mutualistic relationship called syntrophy. A well-known syntrophic process is Direct Interspecies Electron Transfer (DIET), where chemical energy is exchanged among microorganisms through an electron flow in order to improve AD and biogas production compared to a “classic” AD. Several studies (Lin et.al. 2017, Park et.al. 2017) report the advantage of adding graphene or activated carbon to an AD process in small scale tests. The aim of this work was to characterize different conductive materials and quantify their effect on biogas production in medium sized scale tests.
Methodology Six materials (zeolite, graphene, Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC), biochar, carbon nanotubes, carbon fibers) were characterized for conductivity and morphology by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis. In a first BioMethane Potential (BMP) test, two concentrations for each material have been tested in 120 ml vials, the most performing conditions were scaled up in 3.5l BMP reactors. Experiments were run at 38° until steady state was reached with daily manometric assessment of biogas production. Tests were set with 1:1 Volatile Solids (VS) based ratio between ethanol as carbon source and inoculum anaerobic sludge from a Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) digester, Chiasso CH WWTP and the chosen conductive material. Kinetic analysis was performed on cumulative biogas production using a modified Gompertz equation (Lay et.al., 1997) to estimate theoretical maximum biogas production, maximum production rate and lag time.
Findings The screening step showed the most promising materials and concentrations: graphene 0.5 g/l, PAC 20 g/l, biochar 10 g/l were therefore tested in 3.5l reactors. Also in this second testing, an increased biogas production compared to their respective control (with no material added) was confirmed. Moreover, the only test with a decreased biogas production was the zeolite one, with a measured conductivity set on zero.
Conclusions and Significance Kinetic analysis by non-linear regression fitting (GraphPad Prism 8, GraphPad software, La Jolla, CA-USA) showed that, compared to the control, the addition of the conductive material tested resulted in an improved biogas production process.
Former Director General of Agricultural Research System, Pakistan
Title: Biofuels and Bioenergy is the major industry for the development of health, basic need of daily life, create employment, generate income, stronger economy, reducing financial crises, global Poverty and hunger in the developing countries of the world particularly in south Asia.
Time : 12:40-1:00
Mr. Muhammad Usman, Former Director General of Agricultural Research System, Government of Pakistan who retired from service after a spotless career of about 35 years with senior level experience on research and development of integrated agricultural production, industries, Agriculture & Horticulture and bioenergy on a sustainable way.
The aim of presentation consist of biofuels, bioenergy, industry, employment, income, economy, crises, global poverty and hunger were studied and reported that Biofuels and Bioenergy is the major industry for the development of health, basic need of daily life, create employment, generate income, stronger economy, reducing financial crises, global Poverty and hunger in the developing countries of the world particularly in south Asia. The study reported that biofuels is the major tool can be produced from plant, plant derived materials, renewable in nature, derived from biomass and used directly for heating known as biomass fuels. Biofuels can be broadly defined as solid, liquid, or gas fuel consisting of or derived from biomass. Biomass can also be used directly for heating or power-known as biomass fuel. Biomass is a biological materials derived from living organism including plants and animals, known as agricultural biomass. The study reported that bioenergy is the renewable energy produced by living organisms. The data recorded in Pakistan showed that a single cow is sufficient to provide a whole family with their milk and energy needs as biogas generated from the dung of cow. This is not only the cheapest source of energy but also an important alternative to replace the costly item like furnace oil, coal, natural gas used for non-renewable energy. It means, bioenergy is the basic need of our life, main source of poverty and without energy life is almost impossible. In view of the importance of bioenergy, the developing counties are still facing energy crises due to dense population and highly dependence on non-renewable energy although a great potential of bioenergy are available. As reported, due to lack of energy nearly one billion people go to bed hungry each night. The study reported that the total countries available in the world are 225, consist of (Developed countries = 49, developing countries = 150, observer state = 4, state without partial recognition = 8, unrecognized state = 14). Similarly, South Asia comprises the countries of Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal and Sri Lanka. South Asia is about one fifth of the world’s population, which is considered as the most densely populated region in the world. In the light of above study, it is proposed that Biofuel and Bioenergy should be commercialized for the development of health, basic need of daily life, create employment, generate income, stronger economy, reducing financial crises, global Poverty and hunger in the developing countries of the world particularly in south Asia.
University of Tehran, Iran
Isham Alzoub is currently working as a professor in University of Tehran, Iran .
Land leveling is one of the most important steps in soil preparation and cultivation. Although land leveling with machines require considerable amount of energy, it delivers a suitable surface slope with minimal deterioration of the soil and damage to plants and other organisms in the soil. Notwithstanding, researchers during recent years have tried to reduce fossil fuel consumption and its deleterious side effects using new techniques such as; Artificial Neural Network (ANN),Imperialist Competitive Algorithm –ANN (ICA-ANN), and regression and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) andSensitivity Analysis that will lead to a noticeable improvement in the environment. In this research effects of various soil properties such as Embankment Volume, Soil Compressibility Factor, Specific Gravity, Moisture Content, Slope, Sand Percent, and Soil Swelling Index in energy consumption were investigated. The study was consisted of 90 samples were collected from 3 different regions. The grid size was set 20 m in 20 m (20*20) from a farmland in Karaj province of Iran. The aim of this work was to determine best linear model Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Sensitivity Analysis in order to predict the energy consumption for land leveling. According to the results of Sensitivity Analysis, only three parameters; Density, Soil Compressibility Factor and, Embankment Volume Index had significant effect on fuel consumption. According to the results of regression, only three parameters; Slope, Cut-Fill Volume (V) and, Soil Swelling Index (SSI) had significant effect on energy consumption. using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for prediction of labor energy, fuel energy, total machinery cost, and total machinery energy can be successfully demonstrated. In comparison with ANN, all ICA-ANN models had higher accuracy in prediction according to their higher R2 value and lower RMSE value. The performance of the multivariate ICA-ANN and regression and artificial neural network and Sensitivity analysis and Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model was evaluated by using statistical index (RMSE, R2 )). The values of RMSE and R2 derived by ICA-ANN model were, to Labor Energy (0.0146 and 0.9987), Fuel energy (0.0322 and 0.9975), Total Machinery Cost (0.0248 and 0.9963), Total Machinery Energy (0.0161 and 0.9987) respectively, while these parameters for multivariate regression model were, to Labor Energy (0.1394 and 0.9008), Fuel energy (0.1514 and 0.8913), Total Machinery Cost (TMC) (0.1492 and 0.9128), Total Machinery Energy (0.1378 and 0.9103).Respectively, while these parameters for ANN model were, to Labor Energy (0.0159 and 0.9990), Fuel energy (0.0206 and 0.9983), Total Machinery Cost (0.0287 and 0.9966), Total Machinery Energy (0.0157 and 0.9990) respectively, while these parameters for Sensitivity analysis model were, to Labor Energy (0.1899 and 0.8631), Fuel energy (0.8562 and 0.0206), Total Machinery Cost (0.1946 and 0.8581), Total Machinery Energy (0.1892 and 0.8437) respectively, respectively, while these parameters for ANFIS model were, to Labor Energy (0.0159 and 0.9990), Fuel energy (0.0206 and 0.9983), Total Machinery Cost (0.0287 and 0.9966), Total Machinery Energy (0.0157 and 0.9990) respectively, Results showed that ICA_ANN with seven neurons in hidden layer had better.
National Institute of Technology Durgapur, 713209, West Bengal, India
Shipra Mukhopadhyay is doing PhD from NIT Durgapur, She has completed her M.Tech in corrosion science & Technology from NIT Durgapur, West Bengal. She has published a paper in reputed SCI journal and has also attended and presented papers in 5 National and 3 International conferences in India.
In the present work inhibitive effect of Star fruit juice extract (SFJE) on the corrosion of mild steel in aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid medium was investigated. Gravimetric measurement, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization were used to study the corrosion behaviour of mild steel in absence and presence of SFJE. The inhibition efficiencies of the extract obtained from all these studies are in good agreement and were found to increase with increasing concentration of SFJE. Morphological results obtained from SEM and AFM studies showed that adsorption of plant extract molecules on mild steel surface is responsible for corrosion inhibition properties. Adsorption isotherm studies revealed that the molecules followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm as a result of both physical and chemical adsorption. Effect of temperature on the corrosion inhibition behaviour has also been carried out which showed that inhibition efficiency increased with increasing temperature within the temperature range 293K to 323K. The molecules in the extracted material have been characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy and gas chromatographic method.
EAN University School of Engineering, Bogotá, Colombia
Alfredo Villadiego is a Chemical Engineering and Manufacturting Engineering student from EAN University – Colombia. He is an ascribed AIChe student and intern in Ecopetrol S.A.
This research evaluates the productivity and yield of bioethanol production from Dioscorea Rotundata (yam), using Simultaneous Saccharification-Fermentation (SSF). The pretreatment consisted on 30 minutes of starch gelatinization at 68°C; 60 minutes of starch hydrolisis with amylase at 90°C and 30 minutes of maltodextrines hydrolisis with glucoamylase at the same conditions. After enzymatic hydrolysis, the system was cool to 30°C and inoculated with yeast (SafCider-Fermentis). The samples were fermented during 26 hours, measuring the reducing sugars and ethanol concentration by DNS and HPLC, respectively.
The yam concentration used on each sample were 10 w/w%, 12.5 w/w%, 15w/w% and 18w/w%. However, the results show that the 10 w/w% sample achieved the best result, in contrast to the suggested concentration of 12.5% w/w% (J. Murgas & M. Vasquez, 2012), who last 50 hours on fermentation with Separated Hydrolysis-Fermentation (SHF). As result, the fermentation occurs faster than the references that have employed SSF method in other types of crops, with approximately 22 hours of fermentation and at least 33% of the reduction in fermentation time. Furthermore, the process achieved a 90% of enzymatic hydrolysis yield, getting the 67 w/w% of total yam mass added as reducing sugars. On the other hand, the best ethanol yield obtained was 46.67 l/ton and 0.188 g/l h as productivity. Nevertheless, fermentation yield was 12.9%, a low value if it is compared with the typical fermentation yield that is between 49.5% and 52%. This deviation was related to a low ethanol selectivity of the yeast used on the samples.
Punjab Bioenergy Institute, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
Dr. Saima Shahzad Mirza, has completed his PhD in the field of Bioenergy at the age of 33 years from Unuversity of the Punjab Lahore, Pakistan. The author published 13 articles in high impacted journals and two book chapters. She is currently managing 03 research projects. She was awarded certificate of appreciation from Washington State University, USA. Later she was bestowed with innovation award in Innovation summit, 2012 held in PU. She joined Energy System Engineering (ESE) in UAF on 15-July-2015 and started work in Punjab Bioenergy Institute (PBI), UAF, Pakistan on 22-July-2015.
Chromium (Cr) is a toxic and carcinogenic element. The discharge of Cr into the environment has become a problem of great concern all over the world including Pakistan since few decades. Present research was conducted to study the biosorption of total Cr using two strains of algae Chlorella and Scenedesmus. Water quality indicators like chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), pH, electrical conductance (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), amount of suspended solids and Cr content were analyzed before and after the algal sorption. All these indicators were found beyond the permissible limits recommended by Punjab Environmental Quality Standard (PEQS) for irrigation, except pH of waste effluent which was 6.8 that is considered safe for disposal. Algal strains Chlorella and Scenedesmus were multiplied in an aquarium at different pH (6.5, 7, 7.8, and 8) to assess the growth response. After 26 days, growth equilibrium was achieved. After 23 days, maximum number of cells was examined at pH 7.8 using microscope. Cells count was 28X105. While growth of scenedesmus attained equilibrium after 26 days at same pH and total number of cell count was 20X105. Carbon activate algae granules (CAAG) was prepared using 0.1 N HCl solution for 24 hour stay in continuous stirring conditions. Effect of sorbent dose (5, 7 and 9 g) and contact time (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 min.) were evaluated using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Results revealed that the maximum adsorption of Cr was after 90 min. using 9.0 g of Chlorella biomass. While Senedesmes took 120 min. with same dose of sorbent. Whole experiment was carried out at room temperature. Results revealed that maximum biosorption efficiency of 9.0 g CAAG was found at 90 min. which showed 97 % removal of Cr from leather effluent.